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Diplodocus
DIP-low DOCK-us

 

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Name means: ‘double beam’
Type of dinosaur: sauropod
Length: 26.0m
Weight: 20000kg
Diet: herbivorous
Teeth: rows of teeth like a comb
Food: leaves from trees and soft plants

How it moved: on 4 legs
When it lived: Late Jurassic,
155-145 million years ago
Found in: USA

Diplodocus had a long neck that it would have used to reach high and low vegetation, and to drink water.

Diplodocus may have had narrow, pointed bony spines lining its back.

 

© The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.
Licenced under the Open Government Licence

Tyrannosaurus Rex
tie-RAN-oh-sore-us

 

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Name means: ‘tyrant lizard’
Type of dinosaur: large theropod
Length: 12.0m
Weight: 7000kg
Diet: carnivorous
Teeth: 60 saw-edged, bone-crushing, pointed teeth
Food: other animals
How it moved: on 2 legs
When it lived: Late Cretaceous, 68-66 million years ago
Found in: Canada, USA

The ultimate carnivore
Tyrannosaurus lives up to its reputation as one of the most fearsome animals of all time. Its powerful jaws had 60 teeth, each one up to 20cm (8 inches) long and its bite was around 3 times as powerful than that of a lion.

 

© The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.
Licenced under the Open Government Licence.

Archaeopteryx
ark-ee-OPT-er-ix

 

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Name means: ‘ancient wing’
Type of dinosaur: small theropod
Length: 0.5m
Weight: 6kg
Diet: carnivorous
Teeth: many small conical (cone-like) teeth in the upper jaw
Food: may have eaten small reptiles, mammals or insects
How it moved: on 2 legs and by flying
When it lived: Late Jurassic, 147 million years ago
Found in: Germany

Archaeopteryx lived at the end of the Jurassic period.

By the Late Cretaceous, 70 million years later, birds had evolved.

 

© The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.
Licenced under the Open Government Licence.

Triceratops
tri-SERRA-tops

 

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Name means: ‘three-horned face’
Type of dinosaur: ceratopsian
Length: 9.0m
Weight: 5500kg
Diet: herbivorous
Teeth: horny beak and shearing teeth
Food: tough palm fronds
How it moved: on 4 legs
When it lived: Late Cretaceous, 68-66 million years ago
Found in: USA

With its 3 horns, a parrot-like beak and a large frill that could reach nearly 1 metre  (3 feet) across, the Triceratops skull is one of the largest and most striking of any land animal.

 

© The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.
Licenced under the Open Government Licence.

Maiasaura
my-ah-SORE-ah

 

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Name means: ‘good mother lizard’
Type of dinosaur: euornithopod
Length: 9.0m
Weight: 2500kg
Diet: herbivorous
Teeth: a toothless beak for snipping plants and hundreds of teeth designed for chewing and grinding
Food: plants and leaves
How it moved: on 4 legs
When it lived: Late Cretaceous, 80-75 million years ago
Found in: USA

Maiasaura was a plant-eating duck-billed dinosaur that was very protective of its young.

It nested in colonies for protection from predators, rather like seabirds do today.

 

© The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.
Licenced under the Open Government Licence.

Stegosaurus
STEG-oh-SORE-us

 

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Name means: ‘roof lizard’
Type of dinosaur:armoured dinosaur
Length: 9.0m
Weight: 4000kg
Diet: herbivorous
Teeth: grinding teeth with a horny beak at the front
Food: plant material
How it moved: on 4 legs
When it lived: Late Jurassic, 155-145 million years ago
Found in: USA

A large, slow moving plant-eater, Stegosaurus would have defended itself from predators like Allosaurus and Ceratosaurus with its powerful spiked tail.

Compared with the rest of its body, Stegosaurus had a small head and its brain was around the size of a plum!

 

© The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.
Licenced under the Open Government Licence.

Oviraptor

OH-vee-RAP-tor

 

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Name means: ‘egg thief’
Type of dinosaur: small theropod
Length: 2.0m
Weight: 20kg
Diet: omnivorous
Teeth: beak, no teeth a horny beak at the front
Food: hard fruits, eggs, and possibly shellfish

How it moved: on 2 legs
When it lived: Late Cretaceous, 85-75 million years ago
Found in: Mongolia

The curved upper and lower jaws of Oviraptor would have been able to crush even hard objects.

This dinosaur may have eaten eggs, or fed on fish and shellfish.

 

© The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.

Licenced under the Open Government Licence.

Leaellynasaura
LEE-ELL-IN-a-SORE-a

 

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Name means: ‘Leaellyn’s lizard’
Type of dinosaur: euornithopod
Length: 2.0m
Weight: 80kg
Diet: herbivorous
Teeth: incisors, canine, and molar-like teeth
Food: plant material
How it moved: on 2 legs
When it lived: Early Cretaceous, 115-110 million years ago
Found in: Australia

Leaellynasaura lived near to the South Pole.

Although this wasn’t as cold in the Cretaceous Period as it is today, it would still have lived without sunlight for much of the year.

 

© The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.
Licenced under the Open Government Licence.

Yehuecauhceratops
Yeh-WE-cow-SHE-ruh-tops

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Name means: ‘ancient horn face’
Type of dinosaur: ceratopsian
Length: 3.0m
Weight: 200kg
Diet: herbivorous
Teeth: horny beak and shearing
teeth
Food: tough palm fronds
How it moved: on 4 legs
When it lived: Late Cretaceous
Found in: Mexico

Yehuecauhceratops was only discovered in the last few years, so very little is known about it so far.

Only about 3% of the entire dinosaur has been discovered, including a very fragmented skull, but the characteristics of this led scientists to propose that the fossils represented a new species of dinosaur.

 

© The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.
Licenced under the Open Government Licence.

Velociraptor
vel-OSS-ee-rap-tor

 

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Name means: ‘quick plunderer’
Type of dinosaur: small theropod
Length: 1.8m
Weight: 7kg
Diet: carnivorous
Teeth: lots of sharp, pointed teeth
Food: other animals
How it moved: on 2 legs
When it lived: Late Cretaceous, 74-70 million years ago
Found in: Mongolia

As portrayed in the Jurassic Park movies,Velociraptor was recreated at twice its actual size and closely modelled on Deinonychus.

Though seen as unscientific at the time, soon after a dinosaur of the same type, Utahraptor, was discovered, even larger than the virtual Velociraptors.

© The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.
Licenced under the Open Government Licence.

Vulcanodon
vul-kan-oh-don

 

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Name means: ‘volcano tooth’
Type of dinosaur: sauropod
Length: 6.5m
Weight: 3500kg
Diet: herbivorous
Teeth: small leaf-shaped teeth to slice through tough stems
Food: vegetation from treetops and ferns
How it moved: on 4 legs
When it lived: Early Jurassic,
205-202 million years ago
Found in: Zimbabwe

Found on a small island in the middle of a lake, Vulcanodon was a prosauropod.

It had stubby, pillar-like limbs that were useful in supporting its heavy body and its strong hind legs let it reach high tree branches.

 

© The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.
Licenced under the Open Government Licence.

Ankylosaurus
an-KIE-loh-sore-us

 

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Name means: ‘stiff lizard’
Type of dinosaur:armoured dinosaur
Length: 7.0m
Weight: 4000kg
Diet: herbivorous
Teeth: grinding teeth with a horny beak at the front
Food: plant material
How it moved: on 4 legs
When it lived: Late Cretaceous, 74-67 million years ago
Found in: Canada, USA

One of the largest armoured dinosaurus, Ankylosaurus had a wide, heavily armoured skull and a large tail club.

It had a large gut space for digesting plant material.

 

© The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.
Licenced under the Open Government Licence.

Protoceratops
pro-toe-ker-ah-tops

 

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Name means: ‘first horned face’
Type of dinosaur: ceratopsian
Length: 1.8m
Weight: 400kg
Diet: herbivorous
Teeth: shearing and grinding teeth with a horny beak at the front
Food: plant material
How it moved: on 4 legs
When it lived: Late Cretaceous, 74-70 million years ago
Found in: China, Mongolia

With a large bony frill but no horns, this plant eater walked on all fours and had a razor sharp toothed beak that looked like a parrots.

This beak was used for defence if it could not outrun a foe.

 

© The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.
Licenced under the Open Government Licence.

Coelophysis
seel-OH-fie-sis

 

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Name means: ‘hollow form’
Type of dinosaur: small theropod
Length: 2.0m
Weight: 27kg
Diet: carnivorous
Teeth: small and sharp
Food: vertebrates
How it moved: on 2 legs
When it lived: Late Triassic, 225-190 million years ago
Found in: South Africa, USA, Zimbabwe

Early meat-eating dinosaurs like Coelophysis relied on their speed and agility to catch a variety of animals like insects and small reptiles.

The sharp teeth and grasping claws of Coelophysis would have helped them to hold and kill their food.

 

© The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.
Licenced under the Open Government Licence.

Baryonyx
bah-ree-ON-icks

 

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Name means: ‘heavy claw’
Type of dinosaur: large theropod
Length: 10.0m
Weight: 2000kg
Diet: carnivorous
Teeth: sharp, finely serrated teeth
Food: fish, Iguanodon
How it moved: on 2 legs
When it lived: Early Cretaceous, 125 million years ago
Found in: United Kingdom, Spain

The mouth shape of this dinosaur was very similar to that of a crocodile, and it had a large claw, about 31cm long, probably on its thumb.

 

© The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.
Licenced under the Open Government Licence.

Spinosaurus
SPINE-oh-SORE-us

 

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Name means: ‘thorn lizard’
Type of dinosaur:large theropod
Length: 18.0m
Weight: 4000kg
Diet: carnivorous
Teeth: flat and blade-like
Food: fish and maybe other dinosaurs
How it moved: on 2 legs
When it lived: Late Cretaceous,
95-70 million years ago
Found in: Egypt, Morocco

Spinosaurus is only known from fragmentary remains.

Size estimates range up to 18m, which would make it the longest meat eater, although more slender than T.rex or Giganotosaurus.

 

© The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.
Licenced under the Open Government Licence.

Pteranodon
TEH-RAN-oh-DON

 

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Name means: ‘winged without teeth’
Type of dinosaur: flying reptile
Length: 5.6m wingspan(average male)
Weight: 20kg +
Diet: omnivorous
Teeth: none
Food: mostly fish
How it moved: flew
When it lived: Late Cretaceous, 86-84.5million years ago
Found in: USA

Pteranodon wasn’t a dinosaur, but a member of a group of flying reptiles called pterosaurs.

It was one of the largest animals ever to fly, with a wingspan of around nine meters – that’s three times bigger than the largest bird alive today, the wandering albatross.

 

© The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.
Licenced under the Open Government Licence.

Iguanodon
ig-WHA-noh-don

 

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Name means: ‘iguana tooth’
Type of dinosaur: euornithopod
Length: 10.0m
Weight: 4000kg
Diet: herbivorous
Teeth: chewing cheek teeth and horny beak
Food: plant material
How it moved: on 2 or 4 legs
When it lived: Early Cretaceous, 140-110 million years ago
Found in: Belgium, England, USA

One of the most successful dinosaurs, species of Iguanodon have been found in many parts of the world.

Iguanodon could probably walk on all fours or on 2 legs. It had a large thumb spike, probably to fend off predators.

 

© The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.
Licenced under the Open Government Licence

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